Interesting. Does this apply to just the word "Redskins" or does it apply to the entire logo, including the profile image?
Technically, this applies to both and neither.
Here's the short version explainer:
Trademarks are interesting, because (in the USA, but not in many other countries) the theoretical basis for trademark law is not that they are a form of property, but that they are a form of consumer protection. A trademark is something that serves to identify the source, origin, or sponsorship of the marked goods. It's an indicator to the consumer of what level of quality to expect. Think McDonalds. When you see the Golden Arches, you know that you are looking at a place where you can spend $10 or less for a very large meal that contains more than the recommended yearly allowance of grease.
Thus, "Redskins" is the trademark for the Washington football franchise. They've used the mark for years, they are well-known by that mark, and when you see the mark you know that you are looking at an occasionally adequate football franchise that is not overly burdened with a sense of racial sensibility. This decision does not change that.
In the USA, a trademark does not need to be registered to be protected. There are common law protections that are available, and the Redskins will still be able to sue people to protect the mark. Registration of a mark provides some additional protections above and beyond common law remedies (for example, it's possible to get an ex parte order to seize goods that are counterfeits of registered marks), and establishes a number of evidentiary presumptions that make it easier to litigate cases.
This case deals purely with registration of the Redskins marks, and specifically with six specifically identified marks. Three are word marks ("The Redskins," "Redskins," and "Redskinettes"); three are pictures. None of the pictures is particularly recent, because the trademark office has been denying new applications for "Redskins" marks since 1992, including (according to the opinion) 7 applications from the football team. The decision applies only to those six marks, and only to their status as registered marks. It does not apply to any other mark used by the team, and does not bar their continued use of those marks.